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Amazing Facts About Number Seven
* Seven is often considered as a lucky number. There is no unique explanation for this. In Japan folklore, for instance, there are seven gods of fortune. Buddhists celebrate the seventh day after birth and July 7th is celebrated as a special holiday. An old game called hazard, played with two dice, is based on bets among which the sum of seven points on both dice has a special place. The sum of points of the opposite sides on every die (singular of dice) is also always seven (1+6, 2+5 or 3+4). Number seven has the highest probability as a sum in a throw of two dice.
Of course, a lot of slot machines show the winning combination as a sequence of numbers seven.
* Eden Hazard, a popular Belgian striker in soccer wears number seven - thus being faithful to his surname.
* Ancient people in different environments observed the moon cycles which last 28 days. If they are divided into four equal parts (each phase of the moon: new moon, first quarter, full moon, last quarter), we got the number seven which is the number of the days in the week. Many cultures named the days of the week by gods or planets (there were exactly seven known planets in antique if we include Sun and Moon): Sun - Sunday, Moon - Monday, etc.
As we can see in the table above, the deities gave the names to specific names of the week. In Anglo-Saxon naming calendar days were respectively called: Sunnandaeg, Monandaeg, Tiwesdaeg, Wodnesdaeg, Tunresdaeg, Frigedaeg, and Saeternesdaeg.
Sometimes names were simply called by their position in the week (for instance in Slovenia: Cetrtek - the fourth day, Petek, the sixth day), but that leads to even more variations with different starting points (sometimes the week is started with Monday, sometimes with Sunday). Through many years and misinterpretations, we got what we got now.
* Pitagora pronounced number seven as a number of perfection (a sum of a triangle and a square) and his followers spread the idea so successfully people started to group many natural phenomena and other stuff by seven.
For this reason, we have seven natural wonders, seven ancient world wonders, seven steps in the musical scale, seven colors in the rainbow(Newton proposed five at first but as a die-hard fan of Pitagora added orange and indigo later). In medieval times they also still believed there are seven planets and they were familiar with exactly seven (!) different so-called planetary metals.
* There are seven rows in the periodic table. There are also seven columns plus one with noble gasses (which by definition hardly make any impact in chemistry reactions). The pH scale of acidity/alkalinity is based around number seven - 0 for most acidic, 14 for most alkaline substances and seven for neutral value (like of pure water).
* Number seven is very important in Christianity. The world was created in six days and the seventh was for resting. There are seven deadly sins and seven virtues, seven joys and seven sorrows of the Virgin Mary, seven parables, seven angels, seven churches, seven seals, and seven trumpet plagues, ...
Seven virtues are: Chastity, Temperance, Charity, Diligence, Patience, Kindness, and Humility. Again, they are made of four cardinal and three theological virtues.
Seven is seen as a union of the Holy Trinity with four corners of the Earth. We can probably all recall the story about seven fat cows who were eaten by seven ugly skinny cows (Pharaoh and Joseph). In the Book of Revelation, we can find seven angels, seven churches, seven seals, seven stars, seven trumpets, ...). The Bible is originally divided into seven sections:
* The Law
* The Prophets
* The Writings and Psalms
* The Gospels and Acts
* The General Epistles
* The Epistles of Paul
* The Book of Revelation
Other religions put great importance on number seven as well: seven heavens are mentioned in several major religions, there are also seven levels of hell according to Dante. A similar concept is known from Hinduism. Muslim Pilgrims walk around Mecca seven times and seven repetitions is included in wedding ceremonies in different cultural environments.
And, by the way: the total of books in the Bible is 7 times 7.
7 x 7 = 49
* Many cultures share stories about the magic powers about the seventh son of the seventh son. The powers vary but are frequently associated with longevity or even mortality. Did you know Rome was established on seven hills and is called Eternal City?
* Mathematician Alex Bellos organized a poll about favorite numbers among people on the web. All numbers were available but almost half of all participants (44 thousand approximately) choose numbers between 1 and 10. Seven was the indisputable winner with about 10 percent of participants proclaiming it for their favorite. He interprets the success of seven through its uniqueness and gives the next example:
* All numbers between 1 and 10 can be divided or doubled, yet still stay in the group, except seven:
* 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 can be doubled (and the result stays within the group of 10)
* 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 can be divided by 2, 9 with 3, and 5 and 10 with 5 (10 also with 10)
* 7 is unique in the group
* The seventh day of every Chinese Year is known as “All Men’s Day”. This is the day when everybody celebrates his birthday no matter when he or she was really born, sharing the birthday spirit with everybody else!
* Just like Isaac Newton many found the way to group similar things by seven, even if that meant to change the rules according to new discoveries. Seven continents or seven seas are just two examples of such doing.
* Number seven is very important in Harry Potter series (consisting of seven books, of course) too:
- there are seven Weasley kids,
- Harry has to destroy seven Horcruxes,
- Hogwarts has seven floors and you need to study seven years to become a certified magician,
- Ministry of Magic has seven levels,
- for a Quidditch, you need seven players,
* Fairy tales are particularly fond of number seven:
* There are seven dwarfs in the story about Snow White.
* We have all heard about Wolf and seven kids.
* The Brave Little Tailor is sometimes titled as Seven at One Blow (he killed seven flies on his bread).
* Seven ravens is another, although less known fairy tale by Brothers Grimm.
* There were seven fairies in Perrault’s version of The Sleeping Beauty.
* Sinbad finished seven voyages.
* We are familiar with seven-league boots too...
* Seven is the highest number of objects a human mind can recognize and remember without grouping them or otherwise using mnemonic techniques. This memory working capacity, known from 1956 (Harvard University's Department of Psychology) is probably related to the number of so-called short-memory chunks. Later experiments showed there is no fixed number of chunks even if we consider the effect of aging and different distractions.
* It is widely accepted fact that cells in our bodies are completely replaced within every seven years. Skin is made of seven layers and is regenerated in seven days.
* Widely accepted psychological theory claims there are seven stages of grief:
* Some teachers of creative writing believe there are exactly even basic plots and each good story needs to have seven character types (although there could be more than one type in a specific character, who can, for instance, play the role of the protagonist and antagonist at the same time).
* You'll always get the same indefinitely repeating sequence: 142857, no matter which integer you divide with seven:
1 : 7 = 0,142857142857142857...
2 : 7 = 0,285714285714285714...
3 : 7 = 0,428571428571428571...
etc. (except for multiples of 7)
15 : 7 = 2,142857142857142857...
16 : 7 = 2,285714285714285714...
17 : 7 = 2,428571428571428571...
* It's believed the loving feelings in the couple vanish after seven years. Psychologists call it a 7-year itch. It's believed the occurrence of infidelity in marriages really highly rises after the seventh year of marriage.
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Amazing Facts About Puerto Rico
Top Facts About Puerto Rico
- Puerto Rico was discovered by Christopher Columbus on November 19, 1493. It was his second of four expeditions to America.
- One of the ships, discovering today's Puerto Rico (named after rich resources, especially gold, and obviously a port), was called San Juan. San Juan is the capital of Puerto Rico, it's the largest and most populous city, the second oldest city in America established by Europeans (after Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), and also the world's busiest ship port.
- Puerto Rico is not an independent country in a classic sense. Officially it's an unimported territory of the United States of America with full name Free Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. There were several referendums about the political status of Puerto Rico in the last decades and the option of becoming one of the US states was always rejected. A tourist needs to obtain the same kind of visa to visit Puerto Rico as if he would visit the USA.
- Puerto Rico became part of the US after the treaty ending the American-Spanish war in 1898. Before that USA unsuccessfully tried to buy Puerto Rico from Spain for 120 million dollars.
- The Puerto Rican flag was designed in 1895 as a sign of solidarity with the Free Cuba Movement. It basically the same as the Cuban flag with red and blue colors reversed. The influence of the USA is shown only after 1952 when the tint of blue was changed to a darker tone and now looks more like blue in the US flag.
- Puerto Ricans pay no federal income tax if their earnings come from the territory only. They, however, pay other kinds of local taxes and are also included in the US Social Security System.
- The official currency of Puerto Rico is the American dollar. But they call it peso or dolar.
- Noche de San Juan is held every June 24 in honor of the patron saint of the city (St. John the Baptist). Millions of people enter the sea at midnight and dunk their heads seven times in a row.
- Puerto Rico has the only tropical forest without snakes. It's also the only tropical forest on the list of US Forest Service.
- A frog called coqui is small but the loudest amphibian in the world. It's an endemic species and one of the most known unofficial symbols of Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, it's already on the list of endangered species.
- The largest rum distillery in the world (Bacardi) is located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. They produce more than 100 thousand liters of rum every single day. There are more than 40 other brands of rum on the island. Pina Colada was officially invented in hotel Hilton in San Juan. Rum has 400 years of tradition in Puerto Rico which is the only country in the world with a minimum age for rum. It has to stay in a barrel at least one year before it can be sold.
- Barceloneta, a municipality in Puerto Rico has so clear water it needs almost no treatment for use in pharmacy. Consequently, there's the largest pharmaceutical complex with 14 industries in the world. Other interesting characteristics of Barceloneta are huge pineapple plantations and blue sand beaches.
- Cockfighting is legal (and very popular) sport in Puerto Rico with special stadiums built for it.
- The leatherback sea turtle, the largest known reptile, lives in Puerto Rico.
- There are no native mammals in Puerto Rico. All are 'imported' from other countries. There was a barkless dog living in this area (already recorded by Columbus) but is extinct today.
- The first winner at the Academy Awards (Oscars) was not American, but Puerto Rican: Rita Moreno. Several celebrities come from Puerto Rico: Rosie Perez, Jimmy Smits, Jennifer Lopez, Ricky Martin, Benicio del Torro, Tito Puente, ... Five Puerto Ricans won the title of Miss Universe so far.
- Playa Quique Bravo in Rincon is known as the best beach for surfing in the world.
- One of the biggest tourist attractions of Puerto Rico is a system of numerous caves (about two hundred altogether), made by one of the largest underground rivers in the world. Speleologists believe only about 20 percent of all caves is already discovered.
- Another top attraction is a 100-foot waterfall Salta (sometimes Chorro) de Dona Juana, a cascade, composed of three connected waterfalls with a pool at the bottom where visitors can swim. It's pretty easy to climb up to the top with a spectacular view on surrounding mountains.
- Arecibo Observatory, located in Puerto Rico but operated by Cornell University, was the largest telescope in the world for more than 50 years (until 2016) telescope in the world. Its collecting dish has 305 m in diameter. It's featured in several popular movies (like Contact with Jodie Foster).